As far as scientists know volcanism in Yellowstone began about 2.2 million years ago. There were precursors and then there were three giant eruptions larger than anything in recorded history. The precursors began with an eruption of the Junction Butte Basalt in the northeastern part of the park. Then the Island Park area in Idaho blew its lid. These oldest postulated eruptions were followed by the three big ones: One giant eruption occurred 2.1 million years ago. The second big one occurred 1.3 million years ago. The last known big one occurred 639,000 years ago.

The big ones were followed by intermittent smaller eruptions. One of these about 180,000 years ago was filled by the West Thumb area of Yellowstone Lake. This series of eruptions continued until about 70,000 years ago while the current Yellowstone Plateau took shape.

Right now Yellowstone’s magma chamber is 5 to7 miles beneath the surface.  It heats the overlying rock which heats the water and causes the geothermal reactions and Old Faithful itself. The magma also causes the Yellowstone caldera to rise and fall every few decades. More recently the uplift has gone on at an extraordinary rate. But it probably doesn’t mean you will see an eruption this year or next year. This is the pattern of the volcano. But like all good scientists they have to admit that they don’t know for sure.

The Roadside Geology of Yellowstone Country by William J. Fritz concludes by saying, “The inescapable conclusion from all this earthquake activity is that the likelihood that another major earthquake will occur in Yellowstone Country is guaranteed; it is simply a matter of when it will happen.”

All this geology about the Yellowstone supervolcano and Yellowstone’s geothermal areas is the background of the upcoming Cheops Books LLC historical thriller the Old Faithful Plot by Dora Benley. Find out what could happen next.

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Yarrowdale Men: Update
From January 1, 1917 through March 9, 1917 Gary Cargill’s great uncle Francis Sulley along with 60 to 65 other American sailors taken off the British armed merchantmen namely the SS Georgic, Mount Temple, and Voltaire were held as prisoners of war in various German POW camps in violation of international law. At the time America was still neutral. The only justification that the Germans cited for holding the American seamen as prisoners of war was that these guys were getting paid as seamen aboard British armed merchantmen even though most of them didn’t even know that the ships were armed. These American prisoners became known as the “Yarrowdale Men” because they were brought to Germany aboard a captured British steamer called the Yarrowdale. The various prison camps that they were held at included ones at Neustrelitz, Camp Duelmen in Westphalia near the city of Muenster, and Camp Brandenburg near Berlin. Their detention created a diplomatic incident that contributed to the US entering into WW1 the same year. On March 11 the Yarrowdale prisoners including Frances Sulley were released by the Germans at the Swiss border. They were described at the time of their release as being dressed in rags. They were emaciated being on starvation rations during the whole time of their captivity. After reaching Switzerland they were given free food and entertained by the Swiss and were taken to Zurich. In Zurich they were given brand new clothes by Mr. and Mrs. Harold McCormick. Mrs. McCormick was the daughter of John D. Rockefeller. Mrs. McCormick invited all 59 men to the Hotel Bauer au Lac. They were invited into the lobby in their new clothes. They were invited to tea, though it was more like a regular meal. Mrs. McCormick had arranged for music and made a patriotic speech on March 16. She gave each man 50 Swiss franks in spending money. Then they traveled to Berne, the capital of Switzerland, to be entertained at lunch at the train station on March 17. Then the Yarrowdale Men went to Spain to catch a ship back to the States.
It is the 100th anniversary of all these events. 100 years ago we were about to enter WW1 on April 6. On April 6 Cheops Books LLC will publish the scene commemorating the event from the Key to Lawrence: Special Edition.

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Why Did the Yarrowdale Men Not Mutiny?`The prize crew of Germans was only eighteen men. The prize crew was selected from among the crew of the Moewe and their commander from the German navy was Lieutenant Badewitz. There were over 460 captured seamen from various British steamers and Noreweigian ships. You had a mix of French, American, British, and Norweigian and other nationalities aboard the Yarrowdale being taken back to Germany.
So how did 18 men control 460 seamen? They placed explosive charges in the engine room, on the bridge, and other places on the ship. They warned the seamen that they would blow up the ship if they mutinied. The ploy worked.

Lieutenant Badewitz was a Captain Bligh like character. Everyone aboard the ship feared him. He was lionized in Germany for bringing the ship full of prisoners back to port. The picture the author, Gary Cargill, displays here is a postcard that was sent around for publicity purposes. It helped to raise morale.

In another Cheops Books LLC publication, Key to Lawrence Special Edition, Dora had to deal with a similar situation aboard the Lusitania. The Arab saboteur threatened to blow up the ship if she did not hand over the Lawrence maps.

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Lieutenant Badewitz

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